where all who passed it could look in disdain, children could throw stones at it and the hawks of the desert could sweep and circle above. A group of European financial commissioners led by Evelyn Baring took charge of the Egyptian finances in an attempt to pay off the European banks who had lent so much money to Egypt. During his "career break" in the Holy Land, the very religious Gordon sought to explore his faith and biblical sites. [56] Gordon also gained the popular nickname "Chinese" Gordon. In a House of Commons speech on 5 May 1948, then opposition leader Winston Churchill spoke out in favour of the statue's return to its original location: "Is the right honorable Gentleman [the Minister of Works] aware that General Gordon was not only a military commander, who gave his life for his country, but, in addition, was considered very widely throughout this country as a model of a Christian hero, and that very many cherished ideals are associated with his name? [180], The novelist John Buchan wrote Gordon was so "unlike other men that he readily acquired a spiritual ascendency over all who knew him well and many who did not...", but at the same time Gordon had a "dualism", in that "the impression of single-heartedness was an illusion, for all his life his soul was the stage of conflict". [40] Gordon designed the uniform for the Ever Victorious Army, which consisted of black boots together with turbans, jackets and trousers that were all green while his personal bodyguard of 300 men wore blue uniforms. [47], The Ever Victorious Army was entirely a mercenary force whose only loyalty was to money and whose men were interested in fighting only in order to gain the chance to plunder. [40] Furthermore, Gordon worked for the Qing dynasty, who were Manchus, which has led many Han to see the entire Qing period between 1644 and 1912 as a long foreign occupation of China. [197], On 4 September 1884, Gordon's fortunes took a turn for the worse when the most able of his subordinates, Mohammed Aly, together with about 1,000 of Gordon's best troops, were killed in an ambush while conducting a raid. Gordon was murdered at some point, but no one is quite sure when. [162], The only other place to hold out for a time was mostly Christian Equatoria under Emin Pasha. He is the subject of several biographies, and was portrayed by actor Charlton Heston, opposite Sir Laurence Olivier as The Mahdi, in the 1966 movie "Khartoum." [187] The Cabinet itself was divided and confused about just what to do about the Sudan crisis, leading to a highly dysfunctional style of decision-making. This is the figure which, since April 1959, stands at the Gordon's School in Woking. Gordon was bored with the work of the Danube commission, and spent as much time as possible exploring the Romanian countryside whose beauty enchanted Gordon when he was not making visits to Bucharest to meet up with his old friend Romolo Gessi who was living there at the time. [2] All of Gordon's brothers also became Army officers. [60], The council subsequently acquired the gardens of his official residence, Fort House (now a museum), for the town. [52] Gordon then returned to Kunshan and disbanded his army in June 1864. [218] The massacre was finally halted by orders of the Mahdi. People Projects Discussions Surnames For some years, the Taipings gradually advanced eastwards, but eventually they came close enough to Shanghai to alarm the European inhabitants. On the other hand, his mother was called Elizabeth Gordon. He thereafter received the honorific rank and title of pasha in the Ottoman aristocracy. Gordon". View the profiles of people named Charlie Gordon. Gordone died of cancer on November 13, 1995 in College Station, Texas. If there is anything that I admire nearly as much as the superb scholarship of Zeng Guofan, it is the military qualities of this fine officer. [248] Strachey ended his essay on Gordon on a cynical note: "At any rate, it all ended very happily-in a glorious slaughter of twenty thousand Arabs, a vast addition to the British Empire and a step in the Peerage for Sir Evelyn Baring". Relations between Egypt and Abyssinia (later renamed Ethiopia) had become strained due to a dispute over the district of Bogos, and war broke out in 1875. How was Charles Gordon involved in the Mahdi War? Exhausted, he resigned and returned to Europe in 1880. Charles Faudree kept a longtime shop and studio in Tulsa’s Cherry Street district, and over his 35-year career worked with clients worldwide, won many honors and saw his work featured [203] About half of the population took up his offer to promptly leave the city. The French hoped that conquering the Sudan would allow them to lever the British out of Egypt, and thus restore Egypt to the French sphere of influence. [93] Gordon visited the provinces of Berber and Dongola, and then returned to the Abyssinian frontier, before ending up back in Khartoum in January 1878. [47] Gordon was thus powerless when the Imperial forces executed all of the Taiping POWs, an act that enraged him. In the months before the fall of Khartoum, Gordon and the Mahdi corresponded; Gordon offered him the Sultanate of Kordofan and the Mahdi requested Gordon to convert to his religion and join him, to which Gordon replied abruptly: "No! Gordon died at his Los Angeles home after a battle with cancer. [194] On 5 August 1884, the House of Commons voted to send the relief force with a budget of £300,000. Whether religion or vanity, or the softening of the brain-I don't know, but he seems to be alternatively arrogant and slavish, vain and humble, in his senses and out of them. The columns are surmounted by carved capitals supporting a cross. [234] Much later a second casting was made. It was removed in 1943. It's a great pity!". [203] A note written by Gordon and dated December 14 was sent out by a messenger from Khartoum who reached Wolseley's army on 30 December 1884. [62] Besides building forts, Gordon was engulfed in charity and religious fervour during this time. Ask Question + 100. What this almost certainly meant was that Gordon had unresolved homosexual inclinations which, like Kitchener, but unlike Rhodes, he kept savagely repressed. [243], Long after his death and despite the popularity of Strachey's essay in Eminent Victorians, the appeal of the Gordon legend lived on. [220] Stones were thrown at the windows at 10 Downing Street as Gladstone was denounced as the "Murderer of Gordon", the Judas figure who betrayed the Christ figure Gordon. [227] On 16 October 1885, the structure was unveiled; it comprises a stone base on which there are four polished red Aberdeen granite columns, about twenty feet high. [29], Gordon was intensely bored with garrison duty in Chatham and often wrote to the War Office, begging them to send him anywhere in the world where British arms were seeing action. He quickly learned that before he could establish stations to crush the slave trade, he would have to first explore the area to find the best places for building them. Gordon was summoned to Cairo, and arrived in March to be appointed president of a commission. [50] The Ever-Victorious Army — which was inclined to looting — had been ordered not to enter Suzhou, and only Imperial forces entered the city. When he returned to England, he was fêted as “Chinese Gordon”. [194] Gordon's armoured steamers continued to sail in and out of Khartoum with little difficulty for the first six months of the siege, and it was not until September 1884 that the armoured steamers first had trouble reaching the city. [238], In the Presidential Palace in Khartoum (built in 1899), in the west wing on the ground floor, there was, at least until 1936, a stone slab against the wall on the left side of the main corridor when coming from the main entrance with the text: "Charles George Gordon died—26 Jan 1885", on the spot where Gordon was killed, at the foot of the stairs in the old Governor-General's Palace (built around 1850). [103], Moreover, considerable progress was made in the suppression of the slave trade. He then rushed to a wounded man's aid and was hit in the shoulder by a spear. [174] Gordon was well received by a crowd of about 9,000 during his return to Khartoum where the crowd continually chanted, "Father!" [190], The Shaggyeh (one of the few Arab tribes who did not rally to the Mahdi) drove Gordon to distraction, with Gordon writing in his diary about them: "Dreadful lot! yeah. [161], On 3–5 November 1883, the Ansar (whom the British called "Dervishes"), as the Mahdi's followers were known, had destroyed an Egyptian Army of 8,000 under Colonel Hicks at El Obeid, with only about 250 Egyptians surviving and Hicks being one of the slain. [30] In 1860 Gordon volunteered to serve in China, in the Second Opium War. When Isma'il's reign ended in 1879, Egypt's debt had risen to 93 million pounds. [156] Gordon's interest was prompted by his religious beliefs, as he had become an evangelical Christian in 1854. The cowboy poets and … [72] The British historian Denis Judd wrote about Gordon's sexuality: Like two other great Imperial heroes of his time, Kitchener and Cecil Rhodes, Gordon was a celibate. "[1] [111] Gordon was well known for being utterly obstinate, joking that: "The Gordons and the camels are of the same race. From September 1882 onwards, Egypt was a de facto British protectorate effectively ruled by Baring, through in theory Egypt remained an Ottoman province with a very wide degree of autonomy until 1914. [48] Gordon also had the pleasure of defeating Burgevine (whom Gordon detested), who had raised a mercenary force and joined the Taipings. [131], Hardly had Gordon resigned when he was invited to Beijing by Sir Robert Hart, inspector-general of customs in China, saying his services were urgently needed in China as Russia and China were on the verge of war. [146] During this time, Leopold who was most anxious to fire Stanley with his ever-increasing demands for more money, constantly wrote to Gordon asking him to be his agent in the Congo. Gordon". [12][204] In the same month, Gordon received a letter from the Mahdi offering safe passage out of Khartoum: "We have written to you to go back to your country...I repeat to you the words of Allah, Do not destroy yourself. The matter ended with Gordon's imprisonment and transfer to Massawa. The Mahdi had given strict orders to his three Khalifas not to kill Gordon. Initially, the siege of Khartoum was more in nature a blockade rather than a true siege as the Mahdi's forces lacked the strength to wage a proper siege, for example only cutting the telegraphy lines in April 1884. [151] Faught wrote that Gordon was only in South Africa for a short time, but one of his enduring legacies is the existence of Lesotho, which otherwise would have been annexed to the Orange Free State. [59], During a visit to Bulgaria, Gordon and Gessi become involved in an incident when a Bulgarian couple told them that their 17-year-old daughter had been abducted into the harem of an Ottoman pasha, and asked them to free their daughter. [210] On the evening of 24 January 1885, the Mahdi met with his generals whose leading spokesman was his uncle Muhammad Abd al-Karim, who told him that, with the Nile low and Wolseley close, it was time to either storm Khartoum or retreat. ", Ghosts of Empire by Kwasi Kwarteng – review, "General Charles "Chinese" Gordon Reveals He is Going to Palestine", "Intended burning of Berber and surrender of Soudan", "Gordon, Charles George (1833–1885) Major General", "A Self-declared Pasha and African Explorer Is Killed", "Statue of General Gordon, Victoria Embankment Gardens", "Memorial to General Gordon, Brompton Barracks, Gillingham", "Tomb of General Gordon by Frederick William Pomeroy (1857–1924)", "Sudan. In 1881, in the Sudan, Muhammad Ahmad ibn al-Sayyid Abd Allah declared himself to be the Mahdi, and began an armed rebellion to  purify Islam and the country. [145] Gordon visited the Seychelles in the summer of 1881 and decided the islands were the location of the Garden of Eden. [12], Gordon was first assigned to construct fortifications at Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire, Wales. [34], Following the successes in the 1850s in the provinces of Guangxi, Hunan and Hubei, and the capture of Nanjing in 1853 the rebel advance had slowed. [244], As a young man, Winston Churchill shared in the national consensus that Gordon was one of Britain's greatest heroes. [128] Gordon's very strong religious feelings led him to devote much time and money to charity both at home and abroad and he was well known for sticking Christian tracts onto city walls and to throw them out of a train window. 0 3. I am coming. In a world moving inexorably towards conformity, it would be well to remember Gordon of Khartoum. I have a splendid camel-none like it; it flies along and quite astonishes the Arabs". [212], The British press criticised the relief force for arriving two days late, but the main relief force was nowhere near Khartoum by then and only the reconnaissance party under Sir Charles Wilson on two gunboats had attempted to reach Khartoum, though it was later argued that the Mahdi's forces had good intelligence, and if the camel corps had advanced earlier, the final attack on Khartoum would also have come earlier. Genealogy for Charles Gordon Maynard (1885 - d.) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. They celebrated H.E's [His Excellency] arrival with an indescribable uproar". He was present at the occupation of Beijing and at the destruction of the Summer Palace. When he and his Mahdists began to threaten Egyptian interests in Khartoum, the British press and public demanded that Gordon be sent back to oversee the safe passage of the Egyptians. By September 1882, the Egyptian position in the Sudan had grown perilous. The Reverend Reginald Barnes, who knew him well, describes him as "of the middle height, very strongly built". [243] About the charge that if only Gladstone had listened to Gordon the disaster would have been avoided, Cromer wrote that in the course of one month, he received five telegrams from Gordon offering his advice, each one of which completely contradicted the previous telegram, leading Cromer to charge that Gordon was too mercurial a figure to hold command. [71] Urban wrote that the best evidence suggests Gordon was a latent homosexual whose sexual repression led him to funnelling his aggression into a military career with a special energy. Queen Victoria sent him a telegram of rebuke which found its way into the press. [203] Gordon told the civilians of Khartoum that anyone who wished to leave, even to join the Mahdi's army were free to do so. Characteristically Gordon requested the salary of £10,000 be cut and accepted £2,000. [58], The traders of Shanghai offered Gordon huge sums of money to thank him for his work commanding the Ever Victorious Army. [125] The eccentric Gordon was very religious, but he departed from Christian orthodoxy on a number of points. "[218] His body was desecrated and thrown down a well. and, like Lawrence, I have tried to do my duty. [165] Gordon offered up a 19th-century anticipation of the domino theory, claiming: The danger arises from the influence which the spectacle of a conquering Mahometan [Muslim] Power established close to your frontiers will exercise upon the population which you govern. [35] The British arrived at a crucial time. The English uniform produces an immediate sensation". Laurence Olivier played Muhammad Ahmad. [150] Before settling out on a trip to mediate the end of the civil war in Basutoland, Gordon met with Cecil Rhodes in Cape Town to seek his advice. Trending Questions. In both cases naval power was the key factor as gunboats in the Red Sea and the Nile provided a degree of firepower with which the Ansar could not cope. [129] Gordon rejected Leopold's offers, partly because he was still emotionally attached to the Sudan and partly because he disliked the idea of working for Leopold's Congo Association, which was a private company owned by the King. [84] As Gordon travelled via Egypt to take the streamer back to Britain, a man who met him in Cairo described Gordon as a broken man who was "rather off his head". Scorn and reproach were cast upon us, and would we plead that it was undeserved? Located in the town centre of his birthplace of Woolwich is General Gordon Square, formerly known as General Gordon Place until a major urban landscaped area was developed and the road name changed. C.G. At Cairo, he received further instructions from Sir Evelyn Baring, and was appointed governor-general with executive powers by the Khedive Tewfik Pasha, who also gave Gordon a firman (edict) ordering him to establish a government in the Sudan, which Gordon was later to use as a reason for staying in Khartoum. In 1871 and 1872 Gordon was sent to Turkey to work on the International Danube Commission. [86] As the attempts of his grandfather, Muhammad Ali the Great to depose the ruling Ottoman family in favour of his own family had failed due to the opposition of Russia and Britain, the imperialistic Ismai'il had turned his attention southwards and was determined to build an Egyptian empire in Africa, planning on subjecting the Great Lakes region and the Horn of Africa. [47] Gordon felt very uncomfortable commanding this force and at one point had to order the summary execution one of his officers when the latter tried to take the Ever-Victorious Army over to the Taipings, who had offered a generous bribe for switching sides. [16], In the 19th century Russia was Britain's archenemy, with many people in both nations seeing an ideological conflict between Russian autocracy and British democracy, and Gordon was anxious to fight in the Crimea. Goodbye, C. G. [194], Gordon had a low opinion of his enemy, writing that the Ansar besieging him were "some 500 determined men and some 2,000 rag-tag Arabs". [19] It was said at the British HQ that "If you want to know what the Russians are up to, send for Charlie Gordon. [120] On 15 July 1879, Gessi finally captured Zobeir together with 250 of his men. Ashley Biden: Meet the president's activist daughter stepping into Ivanka Trump's shoes, Hunter Biden: the president's second son who was the target of Donald Trump's attacks, Meet Dr Jill Biden, America's new First Lady, Joe Biden's policies: The President's views on Covid-19, immigration and the environment, What will Donald Trump do now? "[126] Gordon was an ardent Christian cosmologist, who also believed that the Garden of Eden was on the island of Praslin in the Seychelles. [84] In the Ottoman Empire, power was exercised via a system of institutionalised corruption where officials looted their provinces via heavy taxes and by demanding kickbacks known as baksheesh; some of the money went to Constantinople with the rest pocketed by the officials. [98] Gordon also clashed with Chaillé-Long, whom he accused of working as an informant for Aiyub Pasha and called him to his face a "regular failure". He spent a considerable time mapping the Nile as far as Uganda, before being appointed Governor-General of the whole Sudan. [56], Gordon returned to Britain and commanded the Royal Engineers' efforts around Gravesend, Kent, to erect forts for the defence of the River Thames. Major Charles George Gordon was born on January 28th, in 1833 in a place called Woolwich in London. [194] Nutting wrote that Gordon "could have withdrawn at almost any moment between March and May" if only he had been willing. "[189], At another point, a death-obsessed Gordon wrote in his diary: "Better a bullet to the brain than to flicker out unheeded". [116] Gordon also promised that those rebels who laid down their arms would not be punished and would all be given jobs in the administration. The garrison at Berber surrendered in May, and Khartoum was completely isolated. "[206] On 14 December 1884, Gordon wrote the last entry in his diary, which read: "Now MARK THIS, if the Expeditionary Force and I ask for no more than two hundred men, does not come in ten days, the town may fall; and I have done my best for the honour of our country. Gordon MacRae, the singer and actor who starred in the film versions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein 2d's benchmark musicals ''Oklahoma!'' [102] Gordon's attempts to establish an Egyptian garrison in the Buganda had been stymied by the cunning Mueteesa, who forced the Egyptians to build their fort at his capital of Lubaga, making the 140 or so Egyptian soldiers his virtual hostages. As a sapper, Gordon had to map out the Russian fortifications at the city-fortress of Sevastopol designed by the famous Russian military engineer Eduard Totleben, a highly dangerous job that frequently put him under enemy fire, and led him to being wounded for the first time when a Russian sniper put a bullet into him. [205], Equatoria: Building Egypt's empire in the Great Lakes region, "General Charles Gordon and the Mahdi Faith Under Fire in the Sudan", "Charles George Gordon (1833–1885): A Brief Biography", "Charles Gordon's Charitable Works: An Appreciation", "Did General Charles Gordon Have Aspergers Syndrome? [91], A siege of Khartoum by the Mahdist forces commanded by the Mahdi himself started on 18 March 1884. For these accomplishments, he was given the nickname "Chinese Gordon" and honours from both the Emperor of China and the British. [121], Gordon then tried another peace mission to Abyssinia. [208], A particular aspect of Gordon's personality that stood out was his death wish as everyone who knew him was convinced that he wanted to die. [106], Gordon grew close to the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, an evangelical Christian group based in London dedicated to ending slavery all over the world, and who regularly celebrated Gordon's efforts to end slavery in the Sudan. 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